Tramadol action and indication

What is tramadol action?

Tramadol is a narcotic type of painkiller that is commonly used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in adults. It belongs to a class of drugs known as opioids which interact with the receptors in the brain to relieve pain. Tramadol is available only as prescription medication which must be used only as directed by a medical practitioner. Tramadol mechanism of action is similar to that of opiate medications as it has higher affinity for opioid receptors.

Unlike other opioid medications, tramadol has a lesser effect on mu opioid receptor which plays an important role in pain relief. Most of the opioid receptors are located in the brain where it communicates through the stimulus for reducing pain. Tramadol is metabolized to o-desmethyltramadol which acts as a more potent opioid for relieving pain.It not only interacts with mu receptors but also inhibits the secretion of serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmitters for reducing its pain causing properties.

What are tramadol indications for use?

Tramadol is primarily used to treat mild to severe pain in both at acute and chronic forms. The immediate release tramadol tablets have better analgesic effects which can be seen within 1 hour of ingestion and stays in the body for about 2-4 hours. The pain killing properties of tramadol usually last for approximately 6 hours and interacts with the opioid receptors in the brain to contribute for reducing acute and chronic pains in the body.  Both immediate release tramadol and extended release tablets are especially good for reducing moderate to severe pain in adults within a few hours of oral administration.

What are tramadol contraindications to use?

There are many tramadol contraindications to consider while using it regularly,

  • Pregnant and lactating women should not use tramadol
  • People with liver and kidney problems should not take this drug
  • Children below the 18 years of age must not take tramadol
  • Elderly people diagnosed with respiratory and lung infections should avoid tramadol

What is the use and dosage of tramadol?

Tramadol must be taken only orally and as directed by a doctor. It is very important to understand that tramadol has narcotic properties which might lead to side effects, addiction and other dependency problems. Therefore, it is best tostick to the recommended dosage and not take the drug for a longer period of time. The dose of this medicine will differ from one person to another and do not change the dosage until your doctor suggests it.


Immediate-release tablets:

For oral dosage of immediate release tablets, it is around 50mg per day for adults. It can be used for reducing mild-to-moderate acute pain.  The dosage can be increased as per doctor’s recommendations, however, should not be extended more than 100 milligram per day.

Extended-release tablets:

For oral dosage of extended release tablets, 100 milligrams once a day can be administered and increased up to 300 milligrams based on the doctor’s recommendations.

For oral dosage of extended release capsules, 100 milligrams can be administered initially and doctor may increase the dose to 300 mg based on the requirements.

Both extended-release tablets and capsules can be effective against moderate-to-severe chronic pain. The dosage amount is strictly recommended for adults. Children below the age of 17 years should check with the doctor for determine the accurate dosage level.

If you have missed a dosage of the tramadol, it is best to skip the dosage and go back to the regular dosing schedule as overdosing of tramadol can lead to several problems.

Overdose of tramadol

Tramadol has a lower risk of addiction, dependency and abusing problems as it does not have higher interactions with the opioid receptors in the brain. However,it can lead to certain adverse effects which may be fatal. Taking too much of tramadol can cause serious life-threatening side effects as it not only interacts with mu opioid receptor in the brain but also with serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmitters for its analgesic effects.

If you are facing any of these symptoms such as extreme drowsiness, slow breathing problems, weakness or unconsciousness, then it is better to contact a medical professional immediately to avoid casualties. It is always safe to use the right dosage for the preferred amount of time;basically for shorter periods. Consult a doctor regularly to follow optimum dosage levels and also do not stop the dosage abruptly as it can also lead to several other complications.

Tramadol overdose can also be caused due to its interaction with other substances such as alcohol, painkillers antibiotics and other painful medications. It advised not to mix tramadol with other medications as it can lead to death.

What are tramadol side effects?

The most common side effects of tramadol include nausea, dizziness, abdominal pain, dry mouth,indigestion, vomiting, constipation, drowsiness, headache and diarrhoea. In other cases, tremors, tightness, weakness, swelling, rashes, hallucinations and insomnia may occur. In most cases, tramadol withdrawal can lead to paranoia, extreme anxiety, panic attacks due to withdrawal symptoms.

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